The function of the front door is to guard the apartment and ensure a peaceful sleep for the owners. We can say that they are also a sign of the host’s hospitality and taste. In a country house, the entrance door becomes a decoration of the facade of the house, a “business card” of the building. The right front door is, first of all, the quality of the design and the aesthetic component.
Entrance door materials
According to the material of manufacture, today the construction market offers entrance doors made of:
It is clear that for country houses and cottages, the entrance door should be made of metal or steel, which are distinguished by high strength and reliability. Apartment owners will not refuse such “watchmen” either, especially in big cities. The second place in the rating of entrance doors is occupied by wooden ones, which are often produced in combination with metal. Either a metal sheet is inserted inside the wooden frame, or the frame itself is made of metal. Oak doors are chosen by wealthier people who live in abundance.
Other types of doors are rarely used in private construction, as they do not have the “watchman” function. Entrance doors made of aluminum are installed in garages and are often made of sliding construction. Wooden doors are more suitable for barns and other outbuildings. Glass doors are often used at the entrance to shops and supermarkets, as well as in various institutions.
Front door functions
According to their purpose, entrance doors are divided into several types and are selected depending on the functions performed:
- fire protection;
If the door is characterized by its strength, then it can rightly be called impact-resistant. Bulletproof and fireproof are highly reliable, after installing which the real estate owner can be one hundred percent sure of the safety of his house. The metal structure of such doors is made of high-strength alloys and treated with various compositions. In private construction, hermetic doors are not used, as well as soundproof ones.
Types of entrance doors
According to the method of opening, the door is made of hinged and sliding construction. By the way, heat loss from doors that open outward is much less than from those that open inward. Sliding front door technology is almost never found in private construction due to the complexity of manufacturing and installing the structure, which often requires adjustment to the opening. They will soon be more functional as interior doors.
According to the number of leaves, entrance doors are single-leaf, one-and-a-half-leaf, double-leaf.
According to the shape, entrance doors are produced: standard rectangular, arched, with a blind transom, with glazing, as well as with decorative elements. Since the entrance door is like a barrier between the outside environment and the house, only armored glass is installed in it. It can withstand several bullet rounds, which depends on the thickness of the glass. Armored glass is made from a polycarbonate layer, which is placed between two layers of ordinary glass by lamination. Thus, the bullet passing through ordinary glass is, as it were, swallowed by a polycarbonate layer and stops there.
As for the degree of resistance to opening, the entrance door can be divided into 4 classes:
- Class 1 doors cannot be opened by force or simple tools.
- Class 2 doors can only be opened with power tools.
- Doors of the 3rd class can be opened only with electric tools, the power of which is not less than 500 W.
- Class 4 doors include armored doors.
External and internal entrance doors
Entrance doors can be installed both indoors and outdoors. External entrance doors must be made in accordance with the style of the facade of the building. High thermal protection and reliability of external doors are very important. It is also necessary to emphasize the requirements for sound insulation and durability due to their location. Bad weather, temperature changes and atmospheric precipitation can have a maximum effect on their construction. Wind, as well as ultraviolet rays affect the surface of the door, thereby destroying its structure. Therefore, the high quality of external entrance doors will be a guarantee of their durability and safety.
Internal entrance doors are installed inside the premises and divide them in one building. Their processing is carried out at the request of the owner and in accordance with the general decor. The quality of interior doors largely depends on the selected material and accessories. When buying an entrance door, decide on your requirements for strength and appearance, for sound insulation and for a non-standard shape.
Steel front door
Entrance doors made of steel are quite strong and have a long service life. Excellent sound and thermal insulation, options for decorative finishing make them quite popular among consumers. They perfectly perform their functions aimed at protecting the premises. A certain number of canvases is installed in the door, which is determined by the width of the opening. Combined materials are often used in steel front doors, which increase their technical characteristics and, to some extent, change their appearance.
Wooden front door
Wooden doors, when installed outside, must withstand atmospheric influences and have good soundproofing properties. The outer panel of a wooden door is made of wood, which is treated with a special substance for durability and covered with protective varnishes. Paints of different colors can also be used for coating, depending on the overall finish. Wooden entrance doors are most often installed in those private houses where there are no high security requirements. But it will be better if the structure of the wooden front door is reinforced and equipped with seals and insulation, as well as a special locking mechanism. It is mandatory to have a metal plinth and exterior decoration of the door leaf.
A visor must be installed above the external wooden door, which will reliably protect it from the effects of negative atmospheric precipitation and the sun. Wooden doors have a panel or panel design, or are made of homogeneous materials. Modern methods of assembling the structure of wooden doors allow to increase their quality and strength.
Conclusion : When choosing an entrance door , it is necessary to evaluate the following parameters:
- thermal insulation
- long service life
- intrusion protection
Installation of entrance metal doors
Installation of metal doors is carried out according to GOST and SNiP. Installation rules are determined by some design features of the selected door. Steel structures are made of sheets, bent or rectangular profiles. The canvases are connected by welding. Places for making connections are indicated in the documentation that is included in the set of entrance doors.
To ensure soundproofing qualities, sealing materials are installed around the perimeter of the box. The number of contours is from 2 or more. It is important to create as tight a fit as possible to the vestibule, without visible gaps.
In the places where door hinges are equipped, bolts of the anti-removal type are fixed and passive pins are welded.
The listed installation requirements according to GOST apply to metal doors of standard sizes: 2.20 m by 1.20 m. The weight of the structure is within 250 kg.
Metal entrance doors weighing 200 kg or more are installed on 3 hinges. The lower loop should be at a height of 15-20 cm from the floor.
According to the rules of SNiP, the door leaf is installed with minimal gaps. All gaps formed between the frame and the wall are carefully patched. Voids can be filled with mounting foam, mineral wool or sealing tape.
Special tools and strong fasteners with a diameter of 10 mm will be needed to install the door.
What you need to prepare for installation:
- Bulgarian woman;
- measuring tape;
- wooden wedges;
- polyurethane foam sealant and a special gun;
The first thing to do is to properly prepare the opening for the entrance door. For this, it is necessary to remove the remains of plaster, bricks and other materials that may fall off. Large voids are filled with cement mortar with brick particles. Various protrusions are removed with a grinder with a cutting nozzle or a hammer.
If we install a door in a wooden house, then we need to assess the condition of the beam under the door frame. A rotten wooden beam that is easily pierced with an awl should be removed and replaced with a new one. The place where the beam will be laid must be treated with a special solution that prevents the wood from rotting.
When an even hole is prepared, you can proceed to the installation of the door frame and canvas. It is better to do this work together with an assistant.
Ways of fixing doors
The most important thing in the installation of metal entrance doors is the correct installation of the iron box. Depending on the material of the walls, their thickness and state of attachment, it can be mounted on mounting plates with pins or on anchors.
Step-by-step installation of the box and canvas:
A box is installed in the prepared hole and measured with a level along the plane and perimeter.
The box is fixed using prepared pegs. A support is installed on each place – one in the shape of a wedge, the other made of wood with a gap of 0.5 cm less.
Holes for pins are made in the wall (optimal length – 12 cm). Experts recommend the ends of the pins, which are riveted, which will greatly simplify the process of welding to the plates.
After installing the box, a trial hanging of the door is performed, followed by an adjustment of the level. At this stage, the functionality of the locking mechanisms is also checked. If any malfunctions or inaccuracies are detected, it is necessary to eliminate them.
Step-by-step instructions for installing front doors on brick and concrete
On a wall made of concrete and brick, it will be optimal to install an iron box on anchors. The doors of some manufacturers are sold complete with anchors. If they are not there, you will have to buy them separately.
How to install:
- Through holes are made in the box with further deepening into the wall.
- The position of the door frame is checked using a level.
- The rods are screwed to the frame, and the connection is made through the voids in the side of the box.
- Anchors are fixed with nuts.
- After installing the box, the door leaf is hung.
In buildings made of gas blocks, it is possible to install metal doors on expansion anchors, on a wooden opening or on a welded metal frame.
Installation of the door leaf
At the last stage, the door is installed. You can handle this job only in a pair with an sprinfield deck builders.
Step-by-step installation of metal doors:
- Hinges are lubricated.
- The canvas rises and is brought to the box to connect the holes with the pins.
- The door is carefully lowered until it is firmly fixed. A performance test is performed – the door opens and closes at 45-90 degrees.
- Next, you need to drill the holes for the bolts in the door frame using a drill. For this work, you will need two nozzles – grinding and a crown.
- Now you need to check the lock.
- At the next stage, you will need mounting foam and a special gun to perform insulation from noise and drafts. This work must be done with the door closed. The foam is blown into all the cracks from the sides and top. The threshold is insulated with cement mortar.
- After applying the sealant, the door should be left closed for 6 hours for polymerization.
When installing a metal entrance door, the main thing is to fix the door frame correctly, preventing distortions. Installation should be done slowly and carefully, observing the technological rules. In the absence of certain skills and experience, it is better to entrust this work to professionals.
Installation of wooden entrance doors
One of the most common mistakes that beginners make is measuring by eye. Before ordering or buying ready-made doors, it is necessary to make an accurate measurement. Before starting the tape measure, it is necessary to carefully remove the inner upholstery.
Removal of old doors
First, the moldings are removed, this stage should not cause any difficulties. After that, the door is removed from the hinges and the box. Estimates or fitting can be used as a tool.
Preparation of the base
In old houses or where the door is heavily affected by water, it will first be necessary to restore the base of the threshold. As an option, a strip of moisture-resistant plywood is used.
Unfortunately, you cannot do without an assistant at this step. With the help of a level, you need to check the possibility of installing the door strictly vertically (having previously placed the box from the new entrance door into the hole). It is necessary to test in all planes and, if possible, in several places. It is checked with a level, if there are any obstacles (the rest of the projection) – they will need to be removed.
When you are sure that everything is fine, fix the box with wooden pegs. Two pads per place are enough. The first is made equal and 5 mm less than the gap itself. The second, much longer and with a small bevel angle. This will make it much easier for you to adjust the box.
The door is fixed after exact leveling, if everything is done – you can start. There are several options for how to do this, it all depends on the design of the door and the material. The minimum number of fixing points is 3 for the sides and 2 for the top and bottom.
First, the loop side starts from the top point. It is better to play it safe and check the level after each fixation. Now you can fasten the door leaf and adjust the door frame, and at the same time check whether excessive tension has appeared.
Holes up to 15 cm deep are drilled (through holes) with a perforator. An anchor bolt is inserted. With the help of an end wrench, the bolt is tightened.
So, the box is fixed, the door leaf is hung, the last touch remains – to check the operation. We open the door first at 45 and 90 degrees. They should not move by themselves. There should be no backlash. Works? We check the locks, everything works – great! It remains to close the gap between the box and the wall. You can do it quickly (with mounting foam), but this option is cheap and expensive, since the property is more expensive. It is better and more reliable to cover with cement mortar. After a day, you can hang the moldings and the installation of the entrance wooden door is complete.